The Agreement was first conceptualized during deliberations by the first African Wildlife Law Enforcement Co-operation Conference that was held in Lusaka Zambia from 9-11th December 1992.  The Conference, which was attended by senior officers from Eastern and Southern Countries, pointed out lack of cooperation as one of the problems faced by national law enforcement agencies in combating international wildlife smuggling syndicates.

Due to practical and legal challenges that were facing the national institutions mandated to fight wildlife crime, the Conference proposed more effective measures to combat cross border illegal trade.  One of the key recommendations made was the establishment of a Task Force to complement national enforcement efforts aimed at curtailing illegal trade in wild fauna and flora. Consequently, the Lusaka Agreement was adopted which facilitated the establishment of the Task Force.